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Dr. G.P.S.Raghava

Scientist and Head of BIC Centre

Institute of Microbial Technology

Sector 39-A, Chandigarh-160036 (India)

Phone: 172-2690557 or 172-2695215;

Fax:172-2690585 or 172-2690632

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Papers In Press

 

  • Agarwal, S.M., Raghav, D., Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) CCDB: a curated database of genes involved in Cervix Cancer Nucleic Acids Res. (In Press).
  • Kumar,M., Gromiha, M.M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) SVM based prediction of RNA-binding proteins using binding residues and evolutionary information Journal Molecular Recognition (In Press).
  • Rashid, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) A simple approach for predicting protein-protein interactions. Current Protein & Peptide Science (In Press).
  • Mishra, N. K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Prediction of specificity and cross-reactivity of kinase inhibitors. Letters In Drug Design & Discovery (In Press).

 

Papers of Year-2010 

 

  • Ansari, H. R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Identification of conformational B-cell Epitopes in an antigen from its primary sequence Immunome Research 6:6
  • Pashov, A.D., Monzavi-Karbassi, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. Kieber-Emmons, T (2010) Bridging Innate and Adaptive Anti-Tumor Immunity Targeting Glycans 2010:354068. 
  • Panwar, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Prediction and classification of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases using PROSITE domains BMC Genomics 2010, 11:507. 
  • Mishra,N.K.,Agarwal,S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Prediction of Cytochrome P450 Isoforms responsible for Metabolizing a Drug Molecule BMC Pharmacology 2010 10:8. 
  • Chauhan, J. S., Mishra, N. K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Prediction of GTP interacting residues, dipeptides and tripeptides in a protein from its evolutionary information BMC Bioinformatics 2010, 11:301.
  • Ansari , H. R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Identification of NAD interacting residues in proteins. BMC Bioinformatics 11:160. 
  • Garg, A., Tewari, R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) KiDoQ: using docking based energy scores to develop ligand based model for predicting antibacterials. BMC Bioinformatics 11:125.
  • Singla, D., Sharma, A., Kaur, J., Panwar, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) BIAdb: a curated database of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids. BMC Pharmacology 10:4.
  • Ansari, H. R., Flower, D.R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) AntigenDB: An immunoinformatics database of pathogen antigens. Nucleic Acids Res. 38: D847-D853.
  • Lata, S., Mishra, N.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) AntiBP2: Improved version of antibacterial peptide prediction. BMC Bioinformatics 11:S19
  • Mishra, N.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Prediction of FAD interacting residues in a protein from its primary sequence using evolutionary information. BMC Bioinformatics 11:S48.
  • Garg, A., Tewari, R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2010) Virtual Screening of potential drug-like inhibitors against Lysine/DAP pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. BMC Bioinformatics 11:S53
  • Chaudhary N, Mahajan L, Madan T, Kumar A, Raghava, G. P. S., Katti SB, Haq W and Sarma PU. (2010) Prophylactic and Therapeutic Potential of Asp f1 Epitopes in Naiive and Sensitized BALB/c Mice. Immune Netw. 2009 Oct;9(5):179-91 
  • Das, A.; Pathak, A.; Sinha, A.; Datt, M.; Singh, B.; Karthikeyan, S and Sarkar, D. A single amino acid substitution in the C terminus of PhoP determines DNA-binding specificity of the virulence-associated response regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Mol. Biol., 398, 647-656, 2010.

 

Papers of Year-2009

 

  • Chauhan,J.S., Mishra, N.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Identification of ATP binding residues of a protein from its primary sequence. BMC Bioinformatics 10:434.
  • Verma, R., Varshney, G.C. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Prediction of Mitochondrial Proteins of Malaria Parasite using Split Amino Acid Composition and PSSM profile. Amino Acids (In Press). 
  • Rashid, M., Singla, D., Sharma, A., Kumar, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Hmrbase: a database of hormones and their receptors. BMC Genomics 10:307. Lata, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Prediction and classification of chemokines and their receptors Protein Engineering, Design, and Selection 22:441-4.
  • Ahmed, F., Kumar, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Prediction of polyadenylation signals in human DNA sequences using nucleotide frequencies. In Silico Biology 9:0012
  • Arora, P.K., Kumar, M., Chauhan, A. Raghava, G. P. S. and Jain, R.K. (2009) OxDBase: A database of oxygenases involved in biodegradation BMC Research Notes 2:67
  • Lata,S., Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009)MHCBN 4.0: A database of MHC/TAP binding peptides and T-cell epitopes. BMC Research Notes 2:61
  • Kundal, R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) RSLpred: an integrative system for predicting subcellular localization of rice proteins combining compositional and evolutionary information Proteomics 9:2324-2342
  • Ahmed, F., Ansari, H. R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Prediction of guide strand of microRNAs from its sequence and secondary structure. BMC Bioinformatics 10:105.
  • Kumar, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2009) Prediction of Nuclear Proteins using SVM and HMM Models. BMC Bioinformatics 10:22

 

Papers of Year-2008

 

  • Garg, A. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) ESLpred2: Improved Method for Predicting Subcellular Localization of Eukaryotic Proteins. BMC Bioinformatics 9:503.
  • Raghava, G. P. S., Hwang, D.J. and Han, J.H. (2008) ECGpred: Correlation and Prediction of Gene Expression from Nucleotide Sequence. The Open Bioinformatics Journal 2:64-71
  • Kalita MK, Nandal UK, Pattnaik A, Sivalingam A, Ramasamy G, Kumar M, Raghava, G. P. S. and Gupta, D. (2008) CyclinPred: a SVM-based method for predicting cyclin protein sequences. PLoS ONE 3(7):e2605.
  • Kush, A. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) AC2DGel: Analysis and Comparison of 2D Gels Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics 1:43-46.
  • Lata, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) PRRDB: A comprehensive database of Pattern-Recognition Receptors and their ligands. BMC Genomics 9:180.
  • Sethi D, Garg A and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) DPROT: Prediction of Disordered Proteins using Evolutionary Information. Amino Acids 35:599-605
  • Verma R, Tiwari A, Kaur S, Varshney G.C. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) Identification of Proteins Secreted by Malaria Parasite into Erythrocyte using SVM and PSSM profiles. . BMC Bioinformatics 9:201
  • Vivona, S., Gardy J.L., Ramachandran, S., Brinkman, F.S.L., Raghava, G. P. S., Flower, D.R. and Filippini, F. (2008) Computer aided biotechnology: from immunoinformatics to reverse vaccinology. Trends in Biotechnology 26:190
  • Garg, A. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) A machine learning based method for the prediction of secretory proteins using amino acid composition, their order and similarity-search. In Silico Biology 8:12
  • Kumar, M., Thakur, V. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2008) COPid: composition based protein identification. In Silico Biology 8:11
  • Lata, S. and Raghava, G. P. S.(2008) CytoPred: a server for prediction and classification of cytokines. Protein Engineering, Design and Selection 21:279-82

 

Papers of Year-2007

 

  • Kumar, M., Gromiha, M.M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction of RNA binding sites in a protein using SVM and PSSM profile. Proteins: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. 71:189-94
  • Pashov A., Monzavi-Karbassi B., Raghava, G. P. S. and Kieber-Emmons, T. (2007) Peptide mimotopes as prototypic templates of broad-spectrum surrogates of carbohydrate antigens for cancer vaccination CRITICAL REVIEWS IN IMMUNOLOGY 27 (3): 247-270
  • Muthukrishnan S., Garg A. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) OxyPred: Prediction and Classification of Oxygen-Binding Proteins. Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics 5:250-2 Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes in allergens. Nature Protocols 10.1038/nprot.2007.505 (Online)
  • Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction and mapping of promiscuous MHC class II binders in an antigen sequence Nature Protocols 10.1038/nprot.2007.502 (Online)
  • Lata, S., Sharma, B.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Analysis and prediction of antibacterial peptides Nature Protocols 10.1038/nprot.2007.503 (Online)
  • Kumar, M. , Verma, R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Mitpred2: An improved method for predicting mitochondrial proteins using SVM and HMM Nature Protocols 10.1038/nprot.2007.488 (Online) 
  • Kumar M., Gromiha M.M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Identification of DNA-binding proteins using support vector machines and evolutionary profiles BMC Bioinformatics 8:463
  • Kaur, H., Garg, A. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) PEPstr: A de novo method for tertiary structure prediction of small bioactive peptides. Protein Pept Lett. 14:626-30 
  • Rashid M., Saha S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Support Vector Machine-based Method for Predicting Subcellular Localization of Mycobacterial Proteins Using Evolutionary Information and Motifs BMC Bioinformatics 8: 337 Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction of subcellular localization of proteins using machine learning techniques and evolutionary information Amino Acids 33(3): X-XI 
  • Lata, S., Sharma, B.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Analysis and prediction of antibacterial peptides BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8:263
  • Mishra, N., Kumar, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Support vector machine based method for predicting Glutathione S-transferases proteins. Protein Pept Lett. 6:575-80 Vidyasagar et al. ......
  • Raghava, G. P. S. ........ (2007) BioSuite: A comprehensive bioinformatics software package (A unique industry-academia collaboration). CURRENT SCIENCE 92 (1): 29-38
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction of bacterial proteins. In Silico Biology 7: 0028
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) Prediction of neurotoxins based on their function and source. In Silico Biology 7: 0025
  • Saha, S., Zack, J., Singh, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) VGIchan: Prediction and classification of voltage-gated ion channels. Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 4:253-8 Greenbaum et al. ......
  • Raghava, G. P. S. ...... (2007) Towards a consensus on datasets and evaluation metrics for developing B cell epitope prediction tools. Journal Molecular Recognition 20:75-82
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2007) A hybrid approach for predicting promiscuous MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes. J. Biosci. 32:31-42 [PDF]

 

Papers of Year-2006

 

  • Kaundal, R., Kapoor, A.S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2006) Machine learning techniques in disease forecasting: a case study on rice blast prediction. BMC Bioinformatics 7: 485
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2006) Prediction of continuous B-cell epitopes in an antigen using recurrent neural network.PROTEINS:Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 65:42-9. 
  • Raghava, G. P. S. and Barton, G.J. (2006) Quantification of the variation in percentage identity for protein sequence alignments. BMC Bioinformatics 7: 415
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2006) AlgPred: Prediction of allergenic proteins and mapping of IgE epitopes. Nucleic Acids Research 34:W202-9.
  • Kim, J.K., Raghava, G. P. S., Bang, S. and Choi, S. (2006) Prediction of subcellular localization of proteins using pairwise sequence alignment and support vector machine Pattern Recognition Letters 27: 996-1001.
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2006) VICMpred: SVM-based method for the prediction of functional proteins of gram-negative bacteria using amino acid patterns and composition. Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 4:42-7.
  • Kumar, M. , Verma, R. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2006) Prediction of mitochondrial proteins using support vector machine and hidden markov model . J. Biol. Chem. 281: 5357 - 5363.
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G.P.S. (2006) Prediction of Cα-H...O and Cα-H...π interactions in proteins using recurrent neural network. In-Silico Biology 6:11
  • Singh, M.K., Srivastava, S., Raghava, G. P. S. and Varshney, G.C. (2006) HaptenDB: A comprehensive database of haptens, carrier proteins and anti-hapten antibodies. Bioinformatics 22:253-5.

 

Papers of Year-2005

 

  • Saha, S., Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) BCIPEP: A database of B-cell epitopes. BMC Genomics 6:79.
  • Garg, A., Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) Real value prediction of Solvent accessibility in proteins using multiple sequence alignment and secondary structure. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 61(2): 318-324. The Indian Genome Variation Consortium (2005) The Indian Genome Variation database (IGVdb): a project overview. Human Genetics, Sep 2005: 1-11.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005)  Pcleavage: A SVM based Method for Prediction of Consitutive and Immuno proteasome Cleavage Sites in Antigenic Sequences . Nucleic Acids Research 33:W202-7.
  • Kumar, M., Bhasin, M., Natt, N.K. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) BhairPred: A webserver for Prediction of Beta-hairpins in proteins from Multiple Alignment Information Using ANN and SVM Techniques . Nucleic Acids Research 33:W154-9.
  • Bhasin, M., Garg A., and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005)  PSLpred: prediction of subcellular localization of bacterial proteins. Bioinformatics 21: 2522-4.
  • Raghava, G. P. S. and Han, J. H. (2005) Correlation and prediction of gene expression level from amino acid and dipeptide composition of its protein. BMC Bioinformatics 6:59.
  • Garg, A., Bhasin,M and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) SVM-based method for subcellular localization of human proteins using amino acid compositions, their order and similarity search. Journal of Biological Chemistry 280:14427-32.
  • Saha, S., Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005)  Bcipep . Nucleic Acids Reasearch (Online; http://www3.oup.co.uk/nar/database/summary/642/ ) Singh M.K., Srivastava S., Raghava, G. P. S. and Varshney G.C (2004) HaptenDB: A database of hapten molecules. Nucleic Acids Reasearch (Online; http://www3.oup.co.uk/nar/database/summary/682/ )
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) MHCBN: A comprehensive database of MHC/TAP binders/non-binders and T-cell epitopes. Nucleic Acids Reasearch (Online; http://www3.oup.co.uk/nar/database/summary/702/ ).
  • Issac, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) FASTA servers for sequence similarity search. Proteomics Handbook. Edited by John M. Walker and published by Humana press. Chapter 48: 503-526.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2005) GPCRsclass : A web tool for classification of amine type of G-protein coupled Receptors. Nucleic Acids Research 33:W143-7.

 

Papers of Year-2004

 

  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Prediction of CTL epitopes using QM, SVM and ANN techniques. Vaccine 22:3195-204.
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) A neural network method for prediction of beta-turn types in proteins using evolutionary information. Bioinformatics 20:2751-8.
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Prediction of Alpha-turns in proteins using PSI-BLAST profiles and secondary structure information. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics 55:83-90
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) SVM based method for predicting HLA-DRB1*0401 binding peptides in an antigen sequence. Bioinformatics 12:421.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Analysis and Prediction of affinity of TAP binding peptides using Cascade SVM. Protein Science 13:596-607.
  • Sharma, D., Issac, B., Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Ramaswamy, R. Spectral Repeat Finder (SRF): Identification of repetitive sequences using fourier transformation. Bioinformatics 20: 1405-1412.
  • Natt, N.K., Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Prediction of Transmembrane regions of beta-barrel proteins using ANN and SVM based method.Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics 56:11-8.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) ESLpred: SVM Based Method for Subcellular Localization of Eukaryotic Proteins using Dipeptide Composition and PSI-BLAST. Nucleic Acids Reasearch 32:W414-9.
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Role of evolutionary information in prediction of aromatic-backbone NH interactions in proteins. FEBS Letters 564:47-57.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) Classification of nuclear receptors based on amino acid composition and dipeptide composition. Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 23262-6.
  • Bhasin, M. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) GPCRpred: An SVM Based Method for Prediction of families and subfamilies of G-protein coupled receptors Nucleic Acids Reasearch 32:W383-9.
  • Issac, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) EGPred: Prediction of Eukaryotic genes using ab initio methods after combining with sequence similarity approaches Genome Research 14:1756-66.
  • Saha, S. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2004) BcePred: Prediction of continuous B-Cell epitopes in antigenic sequences using physico-chemical properties. ICARIS 2004: 197-204

 

Papers of Year-2003

 

  • Bhasin M., Singh H., Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) MHCBN: Update 2002. Nucleic Acid Res. (Online)
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S.(2003) Prediction of Beta-turns in proteins from multiple alignment using neural network. Protein Sci 12:627-34
  • Bhasin, M., Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) MHCBN: A comprehensive database of MHC binding and non-binding peptides. Bioinformatics 19: 665
  • Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) ProPred1: Prediction of promiscuous MHC class-I binding sites. Bioinformatics, 19: 1009-14
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) A neural network based method for prediction of gama-turns in proteins from multiple sequence alignment. Protein Science; 12:923-929.
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) BTEVAL: A server for evaluation of beta-turn prediction methods. Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology 1(3):495-504
  • Raghava, G. P. S. Solanki, R.J., Soni, V. and Agrawal, P. (2003) Fingerprinting methods for phylogenetic classification and indentification of microorganisms based on variation in 16S rRNA gene sequences. Page 373-82, Chapter 44, BioComputing:
  • Computer Tools for Biologists. Edited By Staurt M. Brown Sarin,J., Raghava, G. P. S. and Chakraborti, P. K. (2003) Intrinsic contributions of polar amino acid residues towards thermal stability of an ABC-ATPase of mesophilic origin. Protein Science 12:2118-2120
  • Bhasin, M., and Raghava, G. P. S. (2003) Prediction of promiscuous and high affinity mutated MHC binders. Hybrid Hybridomics, 22(4):229-34. Raghava, G. P. S., Searle, S.M., Audley, P.C., Barber J.D. and Barton G.J. (2003) OXBench: Evaluation of protein multiple sequence alignment BMC Bioinformatics 4:47

 

Papers of Year-2002

 

  • Issac, B., Singh H., Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2002) Locating probable genes using fourier transform. Bioinformatics 18:196-7
  • Bhasin M., Singh H., Raghava, G. P. S. (2002) MHCBN Nucleic Acid Res. ( Online) Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2002) BetaTPred: Prediction of Beta-turns in a protein using statistical algorithms. Bioinformatics 18:498-9
  • Issac, B. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2002) GWFASTA: A server for FASTA search in Eukaryotic and Microbial genomes. Biotechniques 33:548-56
  • Kaur, H. and Raghava, G. P. S.. (2002) An Evaluation of Beta-Turn Prediction Methods. Bioinformatics 18:1508-14
  • Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2002) Detection of Orientation of MHC Class II Binding Peptides Using Bioinformatics Tools Biotech Software and Internet Report, 3:146.

 

Papers of Year-2001 & Before

 

  • Raghava, G. P. S. (2001) PDSB: public domain software in biology. Biotech Software and Internet Report 2:154-156.
  • Raghava, G. P. S. and Agrewala, J. N. (2001) A web based method for computing endpoint titer and concentration of antibody/antigen. Biotech Software and Internet Report, 2:196-7.
  • Singh, H. and Raghava, G. P. S. (2001) ProPred: prediction of HLA-DR binding sites. Bioinformatics 17: 1236-7
  • Raghava, G. P. S. (2001) PDWSB: public domain web servers in biology. Biotech Software and Internet Report, 2:152-3
  • Raghava, G. P. S. (2001) A web server for computing size of DNA/Protein fragment using graphical method. Biotech Software and Internet Report, 2:198-200
  • Raghava, G. P. S. et al., Fingerprinting methods for phylogenetic classification and indentification of microorganisms based on variation in 16S rRNA gene sequences. Biotechniques 29:108-115.
  • Raghava, G. P. S. Procalss: A computer program for predicting the protein structural classes. J. Biosciences 24, 176
  • Nihalani, D., Raghava, G.P.S and Sahni, G (1997). Mapping of the plasminogen binding site of streptokinase with short synthetic peptides. Protein Science, 6:1284-92.
  • Raghava, G. P. S. (1995) DNAOPT : A computer program to aid optimization of gel conditions of DNA gel electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE. Biotechniques 18: 274-81.
  • Raghava, G. P. S., Goel, A., Singh, A. M., and Varshney, G. (1994) A simple microassay for computing the hemolytic potency of drugs. Biotechniques it 17: 1148-53.
  • Raghava, G. P. S.. (1994) Improved estimation of DNA fragment lengths from gel electrophoresis. Biotechniques 17: 100-104
  • Raghava, G. P. S.. and Agrewala, J.N. (1994) Method for determining the affinity of monoclonal antibody using non-competitive ELISA : A computer program. Journal of Immunoassay 15: 115-128.
  • Raghava, G. P. S.. and Sahni, G. (1994) GMAP: a multipurpose computer program to aid synthetic gene design, cassette mutagenesis and introduction of potential restriction sites into DNA sequences. Biotechniques 16: 1116-1123.
  • Agrewala, J.N., Raghava, G. P. S., Mishra, G.C. (1993) Measurement and computation of murine interleukine-4 and interfron-gamma by exploiting the unique abilities of these lymphokines to induce the secretion of IgG1 and IgG2a. Journal of Immunoassay 14, 83-97.
  • Raghava, G. P. S., Joshi, A.K. and Agrewala, J.N. (1992) Calculation of antibody and antigen concentrations from ELISA data using a graphical method. J. Immunol. Methods 153, 263-264.
  • Tripathy, S.C., Balasubramanian, R., Raghava, G. P. S., Chatterjee, J.K. (1988) Microprocessor based active and reactive power measuremet. Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Electrical Engineering Division 69 pt 2 , 73-77.